enhanced interrogation techniques manual

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V. Enhanced Interrogation Techniques Enhanced Interrogation Techniques are best used when information is urgently needed to save lives that are in immediate danger, such as on the battlefield or when we have reason to believe that an attack is imminent. That is for others. The UN report also admonishes against secret prisons, the use of which, is considered to amount to torture as well and should be discontinued. The so-called ticking time bomb scenario is frequently used to try to justify extreme interrogation. In the letter CIA Director Panetta wrote Senator McCain that. General Counsel Mora and Navy Judge Advocate General Michael Lohr believed the detainee treatment to be unlawful, and campaigned among other top lawyers and officials in the Defense Department to investigate, and to provide clear standards prohibiting coercive interrogation tactics. Unable to get satisfaction from the army commanders running the detainee camp, they took their concerns to David Brant, director of the Naval Criminal Investigative Service (NCIS), who alerted Navy General Counsel Alberto J. Mora. Another memo released on the same day advises that “the waterboard,” does “not violate the Torture Statute.” It also cites a number of warnings against torture, including statements by President Bush and a then-new Supreme Court ruling “which raises possible concerns about future US judicial review of the [interrogation] Program.”. Harman was the only congressional leader to object to the tactics being proposed. KUBARK Manual: Produced by the CIA in 1963 (and declassified in 1997), the KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation Manual served as a comprehensive guide for training interrogators in exploitation techniques including, among other things, “coercive counterintel-ligence interrogation of resistant sources.” The manual This was not any one particular act; this was just a combination of things that had a medical impact on him, that hurt his health. The statute defines torture On March 8, 2008 President Bush vetoed this bill. However, in his signing statement, Bush made clear that he reserved the right to waive this bill if he thought that was needed. 16 The 2015 McCainFeinstein Amendment expanded this - prevention to cover the entire U.S. government, particularly meant to prevent future CIA-led enhanced interrogation programs. The report, “Experiments in Torture: Human Subject Research and Evidence of Experimentation in the ‘Enhanced’ Interrogation Program”, published by the advocacy group Physicians for Human Rights, described personnel in the CIA’s Office of Medical Services (OMS) performing research on the prisoners as the above techniques were used both serially and in combination. These include: In December 2007 CIA director Michael Hayden stated that “of about 100 prisoners held to date in the CIA program, the enhanced techniques were used on about 30, and waterboarding used on just three.”. Various revisions of the extended techniques were issued. Covered are Attention Grasp, Walling, Facial Hold, Facial Slap (Insult Slap), Cramped Confinement, Wall Standing, Stress Positions, Sleep Deprivation, Water Board, Use … Responding to the ruling, David Davis, the Conservative MP and former shadow home secretary, commented: The ruling implies that torture has taken place in the [Binyam] Mohamed case, that British agencies may have been complicit, and further, that the United States government has threatened our high court that if it releases this information the US government will withdraw its intelligence cooperation with the United Kingdom. The working group based its new guidelines on a legal memo from the United States Department of Justice Office of Legal Counsel written by John Yoo and signed by Jay S. Bybee, which would later become widely known as the “Torture Memo.” General Counsel Mora led a faction of the Working Group in arguing against these standards, and argued the issues with Yoo in person. On February 13, 2008 the US Senate, in a 51 to 45 vote, approved a bill limiting the number of techniques allowed to only “those interrogation techniques explicitly authorized by the 2006 Army Field Manual.” The Washington Post stated: The measure would effectively ban the use of simulated drowning, temperature extremes and other harsh tactics that the CIA used on al-Qaeda prisoners after the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks. After the killing of Osama bin Laden, a Washington Post report, quoting U.S. officials including former attorney general Michael Mukasey, asserted that the interrogation of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and Abu Faraj al-Libbi provided a courier’s pseudonym “al-Kuwaiti” which ultimately allowed them to locate Bin Laden. What we do know is that government officials decided not to inform a lawfully constituted body, created by Congress and the president, to investigate one the greatest tragedies to confront this country. The US press has been hesitant to call enhanced interrogation torture because as Paul Kane of the Washington Post explained, torture is a crime and nobody who engaged in “enhanced interrogation” has been charged or convicted. Former CIA operative John Kiriakou in 2007 told CNN’s “American Morning” that the torture of Al Qaeda’s Abu Zubayda indirectly lead to the arrest of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed: The former agent, who said he participated in the Abu Zubayda interrogation but not his waterboarding, said the CIA decided to waterboard the al Qaeda operative only after he was “wholly uncooperative” for weeks and refused to answer questions. According to Danner, the report contains sections on “methods of ill-treatment” including suffocation by water, prolonged stress standing, beatings by use of a collar, beating and kicking, confinement in a box, prolonged nudity, sleep deprivation and use of loud music, exposure to cold temperature/cold water, prolonged use of handcuffs and shackles, threats, forced shaving, and deprivation/restricted provision of solid food. Report… is a record of interviews with black site detainees, conducted between October 6 and 11 and December 4 and 14, 2006, after their transfer to Guantánamo. Later, after Khalid Sheikh Mohammed was captured, he just “confirmed” the courier’s pseudonym. On July 12, 2005, members of a military panel told the committee that they proposed disciplining prison commander Major General Geoffrey Miller over the interrogation of Mohammed al Qahtani, who was forced to wear a bra, dance with another man, and threatened with dogs. International calls on Obama to investigate and prosecute. In 1963, the Central Intelligence Agency compiled the historical understanding of such non-invasive interrogation techniques into a how-to guide titled KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation, informally known as the KUBARK manual. The CIA Web Team, If you have reached this page from a link within CIA.gov, please. Michael Chertoff, the Homeland Security Chief under Bush, declared that the TV series 24 “reflects real life” – despite the series depicting its main character as encountering different “ticking time bombs” 12 times a day on average. ABC News reported on April 9, 2008 that “the most senior Bush administration officials discussed and approved specific details of how high-value al Qaeda suspects would be interrogated by the Central Intelligence Agency.” The article states that those involved included: Vice President Cheney, former National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld and Secretary of State Colin Powell, as well as CIA Director George Tenet and Attorney General John Ashcroft. The memos, known today as the torture memos, advocate enhanced interrogation techniques, while pointing out that avoiding the Geneva Conventions would reduce the possibility of prosecution under the US War Crimes Act of 1996 for actions taken in the War on Terror. It will educate on the previous treaties signed against torture and touch on possible v… Torture Act, and the Detainee Treatment Act of 2005. Condoleezza Rice specifically mentioned the SERE program during the meeting stating “I recall being told that U.S. military personnel were subjected to training to certain physical and psychological interrogation techniques…”. You may have used an outdated link or typed the address (URL) incorrectly. In addition, many other elements of the ill-treatment, either singly or in combination, constituted cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment.”, Investigation of enhanced interrogation techniques and calls for prosecution, Request for Special Counsel Probe of Harsh Interrogation Tactics. The graphic scenes of torture depicted in the film “Zero Dark Thirty” have revived a debate over the use of enhanced interrogation and the role it may have played in finding Osama bin Laden. The CIA contracted with the two psychologists to develop alternative, harsh interrogation techniques. It specifically details 18 techniques approved for interrogators to use on their subjects, and lists forbidden methods. The U.S. military used the The FBI agents wrote in memorandums that were never meant to be disclosed publicly that they had seen female interrogators forcibly squeeze male prisoners’ genitals, and that they had witnessed other detainees stripped and shackled low to the floor for many hours.”. “Because the danger remains, we need to ensure our intelligence officials have all the tools they need to stop the terrorists,” Bush said in his weekly radio address . Senator John McCain, citing CIA Director Leon Panetta, said that the assertion that waterboarding produced information that found Osama Bin Laden is false; all the useful leads were “obtained through standard, noncoercive means.” The CIA later provided the Washington Post a letter from CIA Director Penetta to Senator McCain that confirms that enhanced interrogation techniques did not help and may have hindered the search for Bin Laden by producing false information during interrogations. On January 22, 2009 President Obama signed an executive order requiring the CIA to use only the 19 interrogation methods outlined in the United States Army Field Manual on interrogations “unless the Attorney General with appropriate consultation provides further guidance.”, Copyright © 2018 Psynso Inc. | Designed & Maintained by. '” A United Nations report denounced the US abuse of prisoners as tantamount to torture. The techniques included forced nudity, painful stress positions, sleep deprivation, and until 2003, waterboarding, a form of simulated drowning. Since 1930, the United States had defined sleep deprivation as an illegal form of torture. History will not judge this kindly.”, At least one adviser to Condoleezza Rice, Philip Zelikow, opposed the new, harsher interrogation techniques. Massachusetts senator Edward Kennedy described Bush’s veto as “one of the most shameful acts of his presidency”. This paper will discuss the leaked techniques approved by the Bush administration then later denied by Obama. The Washington Post reported in January 2009 that Susan J. Crawford, convening authority of military commissions, stated in response to the interrogation of Mohammed al-Qahtani, one of the so-called “20th hijacker” of the September 11 attacks: “The techniques they used were all authorized, but the manner in which they applied them was overly aggressive and too persistent…. Comment from Donald Rumsfeld: “I stand for 8-10 hours a day. The New York Times terms the techniques “harsh” and “brutal” while avoiding the word “torture” in most but not all news articles, though it routinely calls “enhanced interrogation” torture in editorials. Law professor Dietmar Herz explained Novak’s comments by saying that under U.S. and international law former President Bush is criminally responsible for adopting torture as interrogation tool. President George W. Bush has said in a BBC interview he would veto such a bill after previously signing an executive order that allows “enhanced interrogation techniques” and may exempt the CIA from Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions. Their press release said: The report concludes that each of the ten tactics is likely to violate U.S. laws, including the War Crimes Act, the U.S. The terror suspect, who is being held at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, reportedly gave up information that indirectly led to the the 2003 raid in Pakistan yielding the arrest of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, an alleged planner of the September 11, 2001, attacks, Kiriakou said. You think of torture, you think of some horrendous physical act done to an individual. He warned that criminalizing the process could cause policymakers to second-guess themselves and “harm our national security well into the future.”. Some view these techniques as morally unjustifiable and to others it seems to be a small price to pay for finding the source to stop the War to Terror. After Cheney acknowledged his involvement in authorising these tactics Senator Carl Levin, chair of the Armed Services Committee, a New York Times editorial, Glenn Greenwald and Scott Horton stressed the importance of a criminal investigation: A prosecutor should be appointed to consider criminal charges against top officials at the Pentagon and others involved in planning the abuse. The less redacted version of the August 1, 2002 memo signed by Assistant Attorney General Jay Bybee (regarding Abu Zubaydah) and four memos from 2005 signed by Principal Deputy Assistant Attorney General Steven Bradbury addressed to CIA and analysing the legality of various specific interrogation methods, including waterboarding, were released by Barack Obama administration on April 16, 2009. Key Factors Determining our Emotional Health. Freedom of Information Act Electronic Reading Room. Doctors consulted over the matter advised against using a punch, which could cause lasting internal damage. Debates about whether “enhanced interrogation” constitutes torture. It is also important to note that some detainees who were subjected to enhanced interrogation techniques attempted to provide false or misleading information about the facilitator/courier. Nonetheless, Mora has maintained that detainee treatment has been consistent with the law since the January 15, 2003 suspension of previously approved interrogation tactics. How can one know which it is they are telling? “They took good knowledge and used it in a bad way,” another of the sources said. Military interrogators with knowledge of the sources of the information deny that “enhanced interrogation” eventually led to finding and killing Osama Bin Laden A group of interrogators contradicting former Bush administration Defense Secretary Rumsfeld’s claim that “enhanced interrogation” produced the leads that ultimately led to Osama Bin Laden, asserted that the key piece of information, a courier’s nickname, was not divulged “during torture, but rather several months later, when [detainees] were questioned by interrogators who did not use abusive techniques.”. '” I can live with that tradeoff. Browse the Collections | Advanced Search | Search Help. The reason Crawford decided not to prosecute al-Qahtani was because his treatment fell within the definition of torture. According to the Washington Post the request was denied because Attorney General Michael B. Mukasey felt that: officials acted in “good faith” when they sought legal opinions, and that the lawyers who provided them used their best judgment. It is as yet unclear when US government officials first adopted the term enhanced interrogation, and there is no evidence they were aware of its antecedents in Gestapo terminology. Waterboarding: The prisoner is bound to an inclined board, feet raised and head slightly below the feet. What it prevents: The Army Field Manual specifically prohibits most of the so-called “Enhanced Interrogation Techniques” that the CIA used in its post-9/11 interrogation program, as well as any other techniques that do not comply with domestic or international law. Why embracing pain, discomfort, or suffering, is a need for happiness? 17. On June 8, 2008, fifty-six House Democrats asked for an independent investigation, raising the possibility that authorising these techniques may constitute a crime by Bush administration officials. Sullivan reports that in 1948 Norway prosecuted German officials for what trial documents termed “Verschärfte Vernehmung” including subjection to cold water, and repeated beatings. The Washington Post described the report by the Intelligence Science Board: There is almost no scientific evidence to back up the U.S. intelligence community’s use of controversial interrogation techniques in the fight against terrorism, and experts believe some painful and coercive approaches could hinder the ability to get good information, according to a new report from an intelligence advisory group. The CIA was unaware of Mohammed’s stature before the Abu Zubayda interrogation, the former agent said. Also Fox News reports that the enhanced interrogation techniques provided key details on Bin Laden’s location, referring to Dick Cheney saying that he “assumes” that enhanced interrogation techniques led to bin Laden’s capture. And the fact is it did work. Interrogators and BSCT members at Guantánamo adopted coercive techniques similar to those employed in the SERE program. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. so we can fix the link as soon as possible. The eventual exposure of the CIA's black sites and euphemistically named "enhanced interrogation techniques," or EITs, triggered worldwide horror, condemnation and … §§ 2340A renders illegal the act of torture or conspiracy to commit torture by a U.S. national or any individual within the United States. General Mukasey, just following orders is no defense! We appreciate your help. Most actions that fall under the international definition do not fall within this new definition advocated by the U.S. The psychologists relied heavily on experiments done by American psychologist Martin Seligman in the 1970s on learned helplessness. The Obama administration in 2009 stated it would abide by the Geneva Convention and described some of the techniques as torture. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. On May 19, 2006, the UN Committee against Torture issued a report stating the U.S. should stop, what it concludes, is “ill-treatment” of detainees, since such treatment, according to the report, violates international law. Abdomen strikes: A hard, open-handed slap is dealt to the prisoner’s abdomen. After Abu Faraj al-Libbi was captured, he provided bogus information, denying that he knew al-Kuwaiti and making up another name instead. Former President Bush in his published memoirs defends the utility of “enhanced interrogation” techniques and asserts that they are not torture. Role of CBT in Enhancement of Emotional Intelligence. A report by Human Rights First (HRF) and Physicians for Human Rights (PFH) stated that these techniques constitute torture. . It was abusive and uncalled for. A report by Human Rights First (HRF) and Physicians for Human Rights (PFH) stated that these techniques constitute torture. ABC stated further that the last use of waterboarding was in 2003. The United Nations Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment -Professor Manfred Nowak- on January 20, 2008 remarked on German television that, following the inauguration of Barack Obama as new President, George W. Bush has lost his head of state immunity and under international law the U.S. is now mandated to start criminal proceedings against all those involved in these violations of the UN Convention Against Torture. Dietary Manipulation — This technique involved switching from solid foods to liquid. The CIA came to learn that Mitchell and Jessen’s expertise in waterboarding was probably “misrepresented” and thus, there was no reason to believe it was medically safe or effective. 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